Perl Operators
Unlike many languages, numeric and string values have different operators that act upon them. The table of precedence follows at the end, but the following paragraphs identify the common operators.
Assignment operator
= The assignment operator for numeric and string data.
The assignment operator returns the variable that was assigned to, so:
    ($a += 3) *= 2;     # Is equivalent to $a += 3; $a *= 2;
The assignment operator can be combined with a range of other operators to provide a shortcut, eg.
    $a += $b;    # Equivalent to $a = $a + $b;
The following operators can be combined in this way:
    **=  +=   -=   .=   *=   /=   %=   x= 
    &=   |=   ^=   <<=  >>=  &&=  ||=
Quote operators
Quotes act as operators in Perl, supporting interpretation of their contents (interpolation) and pattern matching. Although a set of customary quote styles is expected for certain operations, it is possible to use any pair of delimiters (substituting for [] below):
Word list
Pattern match
For constructs that perform interpolation, the following escape sequences are supported:
\t tab \n newline \r return
\f formfeed \v vertical tab \b backspace
\a alarm (bell) \e esccape \c[ control char
\l lowercase next char \u uppercase next char \Q quote regexp metacharacters till \E
\L lowercase till \E \U uppercase till \E \E end case modification
\0nn octal char \xhh hex char
Where variables and other regular expressions form part of a pattern, these are interpreted befor ethe pattern matching, thus allowing the pattern to have variable portions.  Other than this two stage interpolation, Perl does not interpret embedded quotes as a further level of delimiter. Thus:
    $a = "Hello";   # $a becomes Hello
    $b = "'$a'";    # $b becomes 'Hello'
    $c = '"$a"';    # $c becomes "$a"
A string enclosed by backticks (`...` - grave accents) undergoes variable substitution like a double quoted string, but is then interpreted as a command, returning the output of that command. In a scalar context, a single string consisting of all the output is returned. In a list context, a list of values is returned, one for each line of output, $/ determining the line terminator. The command is executed each time the expression is evaluated. The status value of the command is returned in $?. Unlike in the shell, no translation is done on the return data (newlines remain newlines) and single quotes do not hide variable names in the command from interpretation. To pass a $ through to the shell you need to hide it with a backslash. The generic form of backticks is qx//.
Symbolic unary operators
! logical negation (also 'not')
- arithmetic negation
~ bitwise negation (1's complement)
+ No effect, but useful to delimit certain expressions.
\ Creates a reference to whatever follows it
Binding operators
=~ binds an expression to a pattern match, that may be a search pattern, substitution or translation. The return value indicates the operation's success:
    $success = ($data =~ $pattern);
The default for the data variable is '$_'.
!~ As above, except the return value is negated
Multiplicative operators
* Muliplication
/ Division
% Modulus (remainder)
x Repetition, performed on either a string or a list
Additive operators
+ Sum of two numbers
- Difference between two numbers
. Concatenation of two strings
Shift operators
<< Bitwise shift left on an integer target
>> Bitwise shift right on an integer target
Relational operators
< Less than (numerical)
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal
>= Greater than or equal
lt Less than (stringwise)
gt Greater than
le Less than or equal
ge Greater than or equal
Equality operators
== Equal (numerical)
!= Not equal
<=> Returns:-1  for less than, 0 for equal, 1 for greater than.
eq Equal (stringwise)
ne Not equal
cmp As above for '<=>'.
Bitwise operators
& Bitwise 'AND'
| Bitwise 'OR'
^ Bitwise 'XOR'
The '++' operator increments its target either before its value is returned (placed to the left) or after:
    $a = 1;
    $b = ++$a;    # $a = 2, $b = 2
    $c = $a++;    # $a = 3, $b = 2, $c = 2
    $d = --$a;    # $a = 2, $d = 2
    $e = $a--;    # $a = 3, $e = 2
Autoincrement (but not autodecrement) also works with alphanumerics, such that:
    ++($var = 'm7') is equivalent to 'm8'
    ++($var = 'kZ') is equivalent to 'lA'
Logical operators
&& Logical AND, returning the last expression evaluated. If the left operand is false, the right is not evaluated.
|| Logical OR, returning the last expression evaluated. If the left operand is true, the right is not evaluated.
and Equivalent to '&&' with lower precedence.
or Equivalent to '||' with lower precedence.
xor Logical XOR, both expressions evaluated, right expression returned.
Conditional operators
? Conditional operator:
Range operator
.. In a list context, returns an array of incremented values between the two values specified (incluseive).
.. In a scalar context, returns a boolean value, acting as a bistable operatorr (something of a flip-flop).
... In a scalar context, equivalent to '..' except in specific actions.
Comma operator
, In a scalar context, the left argument is evaluated first, and then the right.  The result of the last evaluation (right hand side) is returned.
, In a list context, this is the argument separator.
IO operators
Filehandles are created with the open() function. Either a filehandle (no prefix) or a variable can be specified, where the variable holds the file handle:
    $filUser = 'USER';
    open($filUser);     # Equivalent to open(USER);
Angle brackets around a file handle returns the next line from that file, delimited by $/ (default to \n). The delimiter is included, so the value is not false until end of file, at which time an undefined value is returned. Usually the value must be assigned to a variable, but if the input symbol is the only thing inside the conditional of a while loop, the value is automatically assigned to the variable $_. The following lines are equivalent to each other: 
    while ($_ = <STDIN>) { print; }    # Also <$fil> where $fil holds the handle.
    while (<STDIN>) { print; }
    for (;<STDIN>;) { print; }
    print while $_ = <STDIN>;
    print while <STDIN>;
If <FILEHANDLE> is used in a list context, a list of all the input lines is returned, one line per list element:
    @users = <USERS>;    # Beware the volume of data retrieved.
File Test operators
The '-X EXPR' file test performs the specified condition on the FileHandle or FileName as listed below:
-r File is readable by effective user/group -w File is writable by effective user/group
-x File is executable by effective user/group -o File is owned by effective user/group
-R File is readable by real user/group -W File is writable by effective user/group
-X File is executable by real user/group -O File is owned by effective user/group
-e File exists -z File has zero size
-s File has non-zero size (returns size) -f File is a plain file
-d File is a directory -l File is a symbolic link
-p File is a named pipe (FIFO) -S File is a Socket
-b File is a block special file -c File is a character special file
-t Filehandle is opened to a tty -u File has setuid bit set
-g File has setgid bit set -k File has sticky bit set
-T File is a text file -B File is a binary file (opposite of -T)
-M Age of file in days when script started -A Same for access time
-C Same for inode change time
The operators in Perl attract the following priority when it comes to their evaluation (very similar to 'C'):
  1. left terms and list operators (leftward) 
  2. left -> 
  3. nonassoc ++ -- 
  4. right ** 
  5. right ! ~ \ and unary + and - 
  6. left =~ !~ 
  7. left * / % x 
  8. left + - . 
  9. left << >> 
  10. nonassoc named unary operators 
  11. nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge 
  12. nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp 
  13. left & 
  14. left | ^ 
  15. left && 
  16. left || 
  17. nonassoc .. 
  18. right ?: 
  19. right = += -= *= etc. 
  20. left , => 
  21. nonassoc list operators (rightward) 
  22. left not 
  23. left and 
  24. left or xor